High Yielding Hybrid Varieties In A Rubber Plant
Parakkapadavil (h) manappadom P.O. palakkad
HYBRID VARIETIES IN
A RUBBER PLANT
The Rubber grows in humid tropical country. It is a gift from the fertile banks of
Amazon River. It is known all over the world as the ‘Elastic gold ‘. Its scientific name is Hevea Brailienses. It is grown for the latex it produces, which is a liquid obtained from its bark from which natural rubber is extracted. The latex is harvested by making a slit in the bark. Rubber is in great demand all over the world and so more and more of it is needed. However, it is very difficult to grow rubber trees well and to harvest the latex. It cannot be grown everywhere since they need high temperature, plenty of water and moisture though they can withstand a dry season. Asia is the leading producer of natural rubber. It produces 3207100 tons of natural rubber.
It is the production of ones own kind. It is necessary for the continuation of species on earth and to replace the dead members of the species. The process by which living organisms produce their off springs for the continuity of the species is called reproduction.
The modes of reproduction vary according to individual species and available conditions. Irrespective of the mode of reproduction, all organisms pass on their hereditary material to their offspring during the process of reproduction.
The modes by which plants reproduce are of three types. 1. Asexual. 2. Vegetative Propogation. 3. Sexual. In asexual mode of reproduction, off springs are reproduced from a vegetative unit produced by a parent without any fusion of gametes. The mode of reproduction in rubber plant is mainly through budding.. Asexual reproduction may be of the following types. 1. Fusion. 2. Budding. 3. Fragmentation. 4. Spore formation.
Reproduction in rubber plant is mainly through budding. Budding is a form of asexual reproduction in which the new individual arises from a relatively small mass of cells that initially forms a growth or bud on the parental body. The bud may assume parental form either before separation from the body of the parent as in external budding, or afterwards, as in internal budding.
Budding Techniques in Rubber Plant
The three techniques of budding can be recognized according to the age of bud wood and the age of rootstock seedlings used.
1. Brown budding 2. Green budding 3. Young budding
Under this method, budding is done after the seedlings have grown in the field for the one year and they remain in the field after budding for another six months. Then they are removed from the ground and transplanted into poly bags. The bud will start sprouting from the 25th day onwards. After six more months, they are ready to field planting. So in effect, it takes about two years for seedling to become ready for planting.
In case of the traditional method of green budding, the budding is done after the seedlings have grown in the field for two months and they remain in the field after budding for another two to three months. Then they are plucked from the ground and transplanted into poly bags. The bud will start sprouting from the 15th day onwards. After a further growth of 4 to 5 months, the plants will be ready for field planting. Thus, by way of green budding the plants in poly bags are matured for planting within one year.
Under this method, germinated rubber seeds are planted directly into poly bags during July to August and budding starts from the 28th day and continues up to 60 days. The scion used for budding must be of 20 to 25 days old. After the successful budding process, the young budded plants will be allowed to grow in the poly bags itself for 4 to 5 months. Thereafter the shoot portion above the bud patch will be chopped off; the bud will start sprouting from the 10th day onwards. After a further growth of 4 months, the plants will be ready for transplanting in the field. Thus by way of young budding: the plants in polybags are matured for cultivation within 10 months after sowing the rubber seeds.
Therefore, my attempt is to prove that Young Budded rubber plant shows better characteristics, higher productivity and is more economically beneficial than the other two.
Methods and Methodology Used
For obtaining the data about the characteristics of brown budded, green budded and young budded rubber plants, a rubber nursery named ‘Cheerakuzhy Young Bud Rubber Nursery & Gardens’ was visited. From Karshaka Shri Kuriakose sir who is the founder of the nursery as well the one who developed young budded polybag plants and his officers at Cheerakuzhy Young Bud Rubber Nursery all relevant information about the characteristics and productivity was obtained.
For obtaining the information on the productivity per day three farmers at Mannarkkad who own young budded, green budded, brown budded rubber plantations respectively were visited. While collecting the information on productivity a few things were taken into consideration. They are the following:
· The three plantations are situated on the same place. This is to ensure that the data obtained was accurate as yielding capacity may vary from one place to another based on the texture of the soil and climate.
· The trees in the three plantations are of the same age. This is because yielding capacity may be different during different ages.
· The trees of the three plantations have same girth (from 28-32inches). This is because yielding capacity depends upon the girth of the trees.
· The plantation is of same area.
Pictures of Cheerakuzhy Young Bud Rubber Nursery
Results and Discussion
From the detailed study of the characteristics of Brown Budded, Green Budded and Young Budded rubber plants the following information was obtained,
Brown Budded Rubber Plants
· Brown Budded rubber plants seem to be more healthy and vigorous than that of Young Bud and Green Bud saplings.
· If the brown budding done in stock plant is found unsuccessful, there is a possibility of making them successful through re budding.
· Their growth rate is slow.
· They show normal growth.
· Uneven growth of trees leads to low yield.
· They have a weak root structure.
Green Budded Rubber Plant
· They show uniformity in growth.
· They show the tendency in fast growing
· Shows less causality in the fields.
· Budding is done in selected plants.
· Sudden growth of plants leads to energetic growth of plants in the initial years.
· They require very close attention during the early period of growth.
· Roots will be lost at the time of transplanting.
· They appear to be thin and weak.
· They show normal growth rate.
· Root structure ensures better growth.
Young Budded Rubber Plant
· Germinated seeds are planted directly into polybags and the budding is done. So there is no loss of initial roots .This results in better growth of plants and earlier tapping.
· Germinated seeds of high quality are planted in polybags in order to avail healthy plants to carry out young budding from 20th day onwads.Hence about 95%-98% budding success is obtained.
· The natural development of root system remains more or less intact which ensures better growth and helps the trees resist strong winds and gives them greater protection against drought in the initial years.
· Facility for the selection of mighty plants of uniform growth and lesser casualty on out planting. It also helps 90-95% of the plants achieve uniform growth and this will result to high yielding.
· Young budding saves labour as well as costs. As the plants remain in the polybags,during the entire process, the labour of transferring them from the field to the polybags is eliminated. Size of the polybags used in Young Budding is much smaller and hence the labour requirement for transport and field planting, is much less than the other traditional polybags plants.
· In Young budding the seedlings becoming ready for planting within 10 months. Thus, it saves time.
This is a comparison report of brown budded, green budded and young budded rubber plants.
Seeds, planted in the field, budding is done in the field.
Seeds planted in the field, budding is done in the field.
Seeds planted in the polybags and the budding s done.
Budding is done after 10-12 months.
Budding is done after 3 months.
Budding from the 20th day onwards.
All sprouted seeds are used and
budding is done on every plant.
All sprouted seeds are used, but budding is done on selected
Selected seeds are used.
Allow to grow in the fields for six months, then transplanted to the polybags after removing the roots.
Plants are transplanted to the polybags after one to two months.
Allow to grow in the polybags for 3-4 months and cut back at 8-10 centimeters from the bud patch.
All roots up to the time of transplanting (about 1.5 years) will be lost.
The first five-month’s roots will be lost at the time of transplanting.
No loss of roots takes place.
The growth of roots is slow due to delayed planting.
Even though the initial roots up to 5 months are lost, fresh roots are grown immediately.
They are ready for planting in 10 months. Growth of roots is enhanced due to younger age of plants.
As the stem is grown up, the first stage appears to be thick and strong
Due to lack of food storage in the stem, in the first stage, the plants are seen to be thin and weak.
Due to lack of food storage in the stem, in the first stage, the plants are seen to be thin and weak.
They shown normal growth.
Even though the growth rate is normal from the third stage, the plants appear to be energetic.
Growth rate is faster from the third stage onwards.
Intervals between two stages are more and height is less.
They show average growth rate.
Subsequent stages are fast growing in lesser intervals of step
Due to weak root structure, trees are prone to be affected by strong winds and drought.
Strong root structure ensures better growth and helps the trees resist strong winds and drought in the initial years largely.
Strong root structure ensures better growth and helps the trees resist strong winds and drought in the initial years.
From the above table it is understood that young budded rubber plants show better characteristics than the
Regarding the uniformity in growth, the following information was obtained from the officers at Cheerakuzhy Rubber Nursery:
Only 60-70% of the plants achieve uniform growth rate.
90% of the plants achieve uniform growth rate.
About 95% of the plants achieve uniform growth rate.
The below table shows the difference in productivity of young, green and brown budded rubber plants.
Since Young budded rubber plants show more uniformity it has more productivity than the other two as about 95% of the trees become cable of tapping uniformly.
From 13 rubber trees of age 13 and girth 32 inches, a sheet of 700 grams is obtained.
From 10 rubber trees of age 13 and girth 32 inches, a sheet of 700 grams is obtained.
From 8 rubber trees of age 13 and girth 32 inches, a sheet of 700 grams is obtained.
From the above two tables the conclusion can be drawn that since about 95% young budded plants achieve uniform growth rate it results in high yielding.
Young bud, green bud and brown bud are the three popular budding techniques in rubber plants. The young budded rubber plants are better than the other two. It is because young budded rubber plants show many superior traits when compared to brown and green budded plants. They are the following:
· In young budding, starts from the 20th day onwards and they become ready for planting within 10 months whereas in the case of brown and green budded rubber plant, budding is done only after 10-12 months and after 3 months respectively .Young budded plants become ready for planting in 10 months whereas it takes 2 years in case of brown budding and. 1 year in case of green budding. Thus, young budding saves time.
· In young budding, no loss of roots takes place. It helps trees to resist strong winds and drought.
· They show uniformity in growth. This leads to higher yielding.
· Budding is done on selected plants. So about 90-95% of budded plants become successful.
Since young budded rubber plants have the above-mentioned traits, I can prove that they show better characteristics than brown and green budded rubber plants.
Young budded rubber trees also show higher productivity because of the uniformity in growth. That is about 90-95% plants show uniform growth.
Therefore, they have higher productivity than the other two.
Since young budded rubber plants show both uniformity in growth and higher productivity .I prove that young budded rubber plant is better than brown budded rubber plant and green budded rubber plant.
- A booklet from Cheerakuzhy Young Bud Rubber Nursery.
- Website of Cheerakuzhy Young Bud Rubber Nursery –www.cheerakuzhy.com.
- A document from FAO CORPORATE DOCUMENT REPOSITORY.